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Define And Function Of Pipe Fitting,Flange And Valves

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PIPE FITTING

Pipe fitting is the occupation of installing or repairing piping or tubing systems that convey liquid, gas, and occasionally solid materials. This work involves selecting and preparing pipe or tubing, joining it together by various means, and the location and repair of leaks.
Pipe fitting work is done in many different trades: Plumbing, HVAC, manufacturing, fire prevention, and many others. Pipe fitters (sometimes called simply "fitters") are represented in the USA by the United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada.
Fitters work with a variety of pipe and tubing materials including several types of plastic, copper, steel, iron, aluminium, clay, and lead.

FLANGE

Flange is piping component that functions to link between the pipes with the other components such as valve, strainer, expansion joint, tools instruments, etc.. and to close the flow fluida. Besides these functions in the design of special flange installed for maintenance (break flange). In terms of the strength of the pressure and temperature, is classified in the flange of the rating are: 150 #, 300 #, 400 #, 600, 900 #, 900 #, 1500 #, and # 2500. 

VALVES

A valve is a device that regulates the flow of a fluid (gases, fluidized solids, slurries, or liquids) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category.
Valves are also found in the human body. For example, there are several which control the flow of blood in the chambers of the heart and maintain the correct pumping action (see heart valve article).
Valves are used in a variety of contexts, including industrial, military, commercial, residential, and transportation.
Oil and gas, power generation, mining, water reticulation, sewerage and chemical manufacturing are the industries in which the majority of valves are used.
Plumbing valves, such as taps for hot and cold water are the most noticeable types of valves. Other valves encountered on a daily basis include gas control valves on cookers and barbecues, small valves fitted to washing machines and dishwashers, and safety devices fitted to hot water systems.
Valves may be operated manually, either by a hand wheel, lever or pedal. Valves may also be automatic, driven by changes in pressure, temperature or flow. These changes may act upon a diaphram or a piston which in turn activates the valve, examples of this type of valve found commonly are safety valves fitted to hot water systems or steam boilers.
More complex control systems using valves requiring automatic control based on an external input (i.e., regulating flow through a pipe to a changing set point) require an actuator. An actuator will stroke the valve depending on its input and set-up, allowing the valve to be positioned accurately, and allowing control over a variety of requirements.
Valves are also found in the Otto cycle (internal combustion) engines driven by a camshaft, lifters and or push rods where they play a major role in engine cycle control.
From:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valve
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